Semantics is the science of the meaning that we transmit through natural language. It is a part of grammar that investigates the way in which the objects and situations of the world are projected in the code of the language. Its primary object of study is the innate capacity of speakers, which allows them to displace the objects of the world in expressions encoded in a natural symbolic language, and which constitutes their semantic competence. Its goal is to build a partial model that abstracts some of the properties of the object. The semantic explanation could be conceived as a model that simulates the innate semantic knowledge of the speakers. Once built and adapted to the empirical data, the model will allow us to experience the dynamic functioning of this knowledge in different evaluation situations and make predictions about the potential behavior of the represented agents. The method used in formal semantics is the scientific method. The model is encoded using the formal language of mathematics and logic. It is thus expressed in an unambiguous language that allows verifying or refuting the scope of conjectures when it unfolds in reality and its explanatory and predictive power is assessed.
There are various approaches to semantics, including cognitive semantics, lexico-conceptual semantics, or generative models of the lexicon. Cognitive semantics studies the encoding and decoding processes of the meaning of linguistic expressions from the point of view of the mental processes experienced by the speaker and the listener. It starts from the observation that the meaning of a linguistic expression does not necessarily correspond to its truth value in a possible world, but to the mental concept that underlies the understanding of the linguistic expression.